Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Korean War Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Korean War - Annotated Bibliography Example As a result, the Korean Peninsula was divided into half along the 38th parallel. The Russians occupied area north of the line, while the United States of America occupied the south. In this book, the tensions and the political environments leading up to the war are described in detail. Both the North and the South were under dictatorial rule. In the South, there was the anti-communist dictator Syngman Rhee, while in the North, there was the communist dictator Kim Il Sung. It is observed that neither of the dictators was content to remain on his side of the 38th parallel and border disputes were rampant as a result. The connection of this invasion of the South by the North and the rising conflict thereof and the ongoing cold war is given in this piece. The war is said to have come as a surprise to the U.S. who considered it malicious and more than a mere border dispute. To them, nonintervention in the dispute was never on the table as they regarded it as a deliberate offensive in a communist campaign to take over the world. The Gays give more in-depth analysis of the situation between the United States and Russia particularly, prior to this war and the inevitability of these two nations’ role in the dispute. The warring nations are differently backed by two quarreling nations and so, when one invades the other, there is bound to be suspicion of a wider play. The stands taken by America and the Soviet Union are discussed in greater details. In April 1950, a National Security Council report known as the NSC-68 recommends the US to use military force to counter communist expansion anywhere it was perceived to be occurring. As a result, then US President Harry Truman is quoted as saying that if they let Korea down, the Soviets will keep on going and swallowing up one place after another. Lee talks about the difficulties and the armies of the war. North Korean army is seen as

Monday, October 28, 2019

Tesco Essay Example for Free

Tesco Essay Introduction This report will discuss the downturn in Tesco’s profits and will describe the contribution of the key business functions to the changes implemented in the organization. (Finance, Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources). Also, it will explain the key stakeholders of the organization and the key issues in managing stakeholders. Furthermore, it will include a SWOT analysis and a Power and Interest Matrix about Tesco. Business functions In the case study of Tesco, it is stated that they will appoint more staff to win their customers back. This step is related to Human Resource Management. HRM is activity, which include recruitment and defining the organization’s demand for skilled staff. â€Å"HRM includes the training and development of existing staff along with the recruitment of new staff.† (Capon 2009, p195). HRM is concerned with the overall strategic contribution of people to the organization. This involves developing policies on how to recruit, reward, and retain people. Moreover, HR department is about the contribution of the employees to the organization and what are their skills, abilities, and career development needs. The key activities of HRM are Recruitment and Selection, Performance, Learning and Development, Appraisal and Rewards. The changes in HRM will help Tesco to overcome the downturn in the most effective and efficient way due to the fact that when there is a strong motivation and enthusiasm to achieve your goals and know how to run your own business it is highly possible to become more competitive on the market and to be a leader in the market place. To increase their revenues, organizations such as Tesco rely on changes in one main area, in our case – changes in HRM. With this step, Tesco managed to returns its profits and moreover, to increase them with nearly 18% at  £1.1bn. For chain as Tesco it is exquisitely important the Operations Performance. The five performance objectives, which affect Tesco, are Quality, Speed, Dependability, Flexibility, and Cost. Firstly, quality means high ‘specification’ of a product or service and it is important for Tesco to have ‘quality’ products in their shops. â€Å"Speed indicates the time between the beginning of an operations process and its end.† (Slack, Lewis 2008, p38). Dependability is to give to the customers a delivery time. Flexibility is essential for the quick and efficient response to the customers demand. The last and the most important performance objective is Cost. It is important for the retailers because the lower the cost of producing the products or services, the lower they can sell it to the customers. The third business function related to Tesco is marketing. Marketing is about understanding the costumer’s needs and succeed to satisfy their wants and needs. It is a functional activity, which is focused mainly on customers, and will they purchase and continue to purchase the certain product or service. â€Å"Because the purpose of business is to create and keep customers, it has only two central functions – marketing and innovation. The basic function of marketing is to attract and retain customers at a profit. â€Å"(Jobber 2010 cited Drucker, p3). Marketing explains that to retain the existing costumers is easier than to attract new ones. The marketing mix is important for Tesco because it covers and explains five different aspects. The marketing mix is composed of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and People. Firstly, the product is something that you will sell to the customers so it has to be successfully launched. The second P is price and it can be different- can be reduced or increased. Promotion is about introducing your product, how you will launch it on the market. The certain product can be promoted and advertised in different ways, through press, television, radio, magazines, internet. The promotional activities for supermarket such as Tesco can be loyalty card s for getting extra points. The fourth P is Place and it ensures the delivery of the product at right time and in the right place. The last key business function, which affects Tesco, is Finance. Finance is related to usage of the finance by the organization and how the finance is managed in the certain enterprise. Because of the growing competition and the growing demand for internet shopping, Tesco started changing its marketing mix from a traditional to a more modern model. Instead of considering only physical placing the products, Tesco needs to devise reliable internet positioning of the products, which could be supported by effective e-marketing and guaranteed efficient delivers. The product life cycle is very useful for Tesco because it allows to determine the stage of your business and if it is prosperous. The product life cycle is the period of time in which a product or service lasts. Over the course of this cycle, there are five stages: Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Saturation and Decline. SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Tesco has very solid position in the global market It is a powerful retailer brand It is the winner of the Retailer of the year 2008 By creating a loyalty card they achieving loyal customers Tesco was trying to gain a new markets such as books and it was unsuccessful due to the fact that there are already approved shops Finance profit levels for Tesco were impacted through bad debt Opportunities Threats Can continue to try entering new markets with new products Trying to meet the needs of the customers International growth Making an online catalogue To create unique products There is a persistent threat of takeover from the market leader Wal-Mart Only in USA. ASDA is owned by Wal-Mart as well and it is threat to Tesco here in UK because of very good internet shopping and low prices Stakeholders Stakeholders are individuals who have an interest in an organization. Some of them can be external and others can be internal. External stakeholders include customers, competitors, financiers, suppliers, government. Internal stakeholders include managers, directors, employees, shareholders. Stakeholders are able to influence and contribute to the company. (Capon 2009). First main step is to determine your stakeholders, their influence, and power about the organization. Secondly, it is exquisitely important to identify what the stakeholders are interested about. Moreover, you should have answers to some main questions such as: What financial or emotional interest do they have about your project or organization? What motivates them? The main stakeholders for Tesco are customers. All customers want is variety of products to choose from and quality in services or products at low costs. Like most organizations, Tesco needs their customers because they are the income and they buy their products. Customers apply pressure on Tesco to meet their needs. Meeting the customer’s needs can be done in different ways such as opening a new store or variety of goods. Tesco have a feedback service so every customer can raise questions or express opinion how the store can be improve. This makes Tesco highly competitive at the market. Customers are the main and key stakeholders for Tesco due to the fact that they can express a certain opinion about improving the store. Moreover, they can say from customer’s view how to make shopping quicker, easy, and enjoyable. In the Power and Interest matrix, customers are in category D – a key player because they have a high power to change Tesco stores and a high interest to be a customer in such a high quality supermarket such as Tesco. Power and Interest Matrix about TESCO Category A Minimal effort Category B Keep informed Category C Keep satisfied Category D Key player TESCO’S CUSTOMERS Conclusion In conclusion, every aspect from the key business function to the stakeholders is very important for Tesco and can influence over it. Every organization has to deal with the business problems and to know how to run the company. Tesco undoubtedly knows what their customer wants and satisfy their needs and desires in the best possible way. The advantage of Tesco is that they are ready to accept the criticism and are ready to change their stores, products, services. List of References: Baines, P, Fill, C and Page, K (2008) Marketing Principles and Society, Chapters 1 and 2, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Balogun, J. and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Chance, 3rd Edition, Essex, Pearson Education Limited Barringer and Ireland (2012), Entrepreneurship, 4th edition, Essex, Pearson Education Limited Capon, C. (2009), Understanding the Business Environment, 3rd Edition, Essex, Pearson Education Limited Jobber, D. (2010), Principles and Practice of Marketing, 6th Edition, Berkshire, McGraw-Hill Education Pelsmacker, B., Geuens, M., Bergh, J. (2005), Foundations of Marketing Communications, Essex, Pearson Education Limited Slack, N. and Lewis, M. (2008), Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, Essex, Prentice Hall

Saturday, October 26, 2019

My Fifth Year Of Highschool :: essays research papers

With dim lights hanging over green felt-covered tables on one side of the room and loud, blinking arcade games on the other, and music blaring from a jukebox, there was no way I was ever going to leave the university. Only a dollar twenty-five to play pool here for an hour! And when it wasn’t my turn, I could go and play pinball! Every day, hundreds of students hung around the arcade, shouting, laughing and looking to challenge someone to a game of pool or a shot at beating you on an arcade game. Yes, I came away from there many times with a bigger ego. I never left after being defeated-you just had to find someone else and beat him or her. I lost a lot of money in that gloomy basement amidst the cracking of pool balls and the beeping of video games. But I took something out of it too. In a way, all the money I lost was paying for what I know now: an arcade should not substitute for college, even if the arcade is in the basement of the student union. As a freshman at the University of Arizona, I at first found myself awed by the power of college: The flocks of people-students and professors alike-mingling on the mall, in the buildings, and in the Student Union. And in the early weeks of my first semester, I quickly found my favorite place on campus: the arcade. Billiards, table tennis, video games, and music. All the trademarks of a college student’s recreation area. It was in these first few weeks that my impression was made about the university. When friends or relatives would ask me questions such as â€Å"How’s college?† or â€Å"What’s school like?† I would tell them what I really thought. I would say, â€Å"It’s like high school, but with a lot more people, a bigger campus, and a lot of time in between your classes.† And that is the plain truth. My class work did not offer much of a challenge-it was more or less the same stuff I’d been seeing for years. The professors weren’t that big of a deal-they were much like high school teachers, but you got to call them by their first name. And the number one best thing about going to college? I didn’t always have to go! That’s right: attendance in some of my classes wasn’t even mandatory.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Hate Crime :: essays research papers

On October tenth of 2004, eleven Christians were arrested for street witnessing on a public sidewalk during a â€Å"gay pride† event. Charges were dropped against six of them, but four adults and one juvenile faced serious charges under Philadelphia's hate crime laws. These five people were charged with criminal conspiracy, â€Å"ethnic intimidation†, reckless endangerment, and inciting a riot. Each person, if convicted, faced 47 years in prison and a $90,000 fine. The state of Pennsylvania recently added â€Å"ethnic intimidation† to its hate crime law on December 5, 2002. Under this section preaching for the Bible is now considered hate speech and is illegal in a public forum. Philadelphia prosecutor Charles Ehrlich attacked the protesters as â€Å"hateful† and claimed that preaching from the Bible about homosexuality is considered â€Å"fighting words† that can be banned from the public square as an incitement to a riot.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In title 18 of the first amendment, it is clearly proven that these Christians did break the law. I do agree with what they were preaching. It is unfortunate that Christians are now being arrested for sharing the gospel in public. The bible clearly states that as Christians, we are supposed to share the good news. In the book of Mathew, chapter nine, verse thirty-five says, â€Å"Jesus went through all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom and healing every disease and sickness.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As Christians, we are supposed to be like Jesus in every aspect of our lives, and these five Christians were doing what they were called to do. However, by doing this, they were breaking the law and in doing so, they needed to be held accountable. OFFENSE DEFINED.--A PERSON COMMITS THE OFFENSE OF ETHNIC INTIMIDATION IF, WITH MALICIOUS INTENTION TOWARD THE ACTUAL OR PERCEIVED RACE, COLOR, RELIGION [OR], NATIONAL ORIGIN, ANCESTRY, MENTAL OR PHYSICAL DISABILITY, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, GENDER OR GENDER IDENTITY OF ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS, HE COMMITS AN OFFENSE UNDER ANY OTHER PROVISION OF THIS ARTICLE.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Jesus and the Law: An Ancient Text in a Postmodern Context Essay

Jesus and the Law: An Ancient Text in a Postmodern Context In looking at Jesus and the law we must acknowledge that Jesus is the fulfillment of the old covenant. Every theme in the Old Testament points forward towards Jesus. The law is the character of God written in a language which human beings can understand. The law was given to show us the holiness of God and to demonstrate man’s imperfection. The entire reason for the law was so that we would understand that through our own efforts and abilities, we can never reach God’s level of holiness, and as such, we would eternally remain damned. But God, gave us the law so that through our continuous failure we would see the light of the truth, which is Jesus Christ. When we willingly acknowledge this ultimate truth, we will recognize that the only way we can ever, possibly, enter the Kingdom of Heaven is by the mercy and grace of our God. It is because of God’s mercy and grace that he decided to send his Son to die in our stead, so that through his death and resurrection we might find eternal life. It is only through Jesus Christ as the slain Lamb of God, risen and interceding for mankind, that we can ever touch the heart of God. God’s plan began in Eden with the fall of man and every act of God was directed towards this end; that Jesus would come to earth to die as our perfect and permanent sin sacrifice. Jesus came in fulfillment of the prophetic foreshadowing presented in the Old Testament. So if we are to choose one scripture to study regarding Jesus and the law we can safely and aptly choose Matthew, chapter 5 and versus 17-48; the Sermon on the Mount. In this passage we shall examine four aspects, relating to Jesus and the law, which are; Jesus proclaims the law; Jesus’ interpretation of the law; Jesus’ fulfillment of the law; and Jesus and the law today. Jesus Proclaims the Law To understand the scripture found in Matthew we must recognize that in this time and in this place Jesus was speaking to the people during the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus was teaching the law of the old covenant because he had not died yet, and so the new covenant was not yet in practice. â€Å"The statues [of the law] are grounded in God’s work in creation and they serve God’s relational purposes of life, stability, and the well-being of individuals and communities† (Fretheim, 163). The primary message that Jesus was communicating can be understood in one verse, â€Å"Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect† (New Revised Standard Version, Matt 5:49). He was teaching the law of the Torah; the law of God. The law demanded perfection, and Jesus was certainly encouraging people to pursue perfection. Jesus pursued this same perfection and was not without temptation. He was flesh and blood. Jesus was a human being with all of our frailties, needs, and desires. He was as much a human as any human being on earth. He suffered persecution and trouble as is evident in his words â€Å"Blessed are you when people revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely† (Matt 5:11). Jesus knew how it felt to be persecuted. He was not without compassion for mankind. Yet, He knew that perfection could only be found in practicing obedience to the law, which is why He went willingly to the cross. Brueggemann writes â€Å"The Torah is not God, for in our obedience and disobedience this is a God; so near. But God is not God without Torah, and if we would know God, it comes by way of obedience† (115). Jesus came in fulfillment of the law, and He was obedient to the law of His Father. He became our example of righteous, selfless, obedient love for God. Jesus was the fulfillment of the law, lived in obedience to the law and taught obedience to the law. He knew that in order for us to touch the heart of God, or even diligently stretch out our imperfect fingertips toward God, we must be obedient to the Law. Jesus’ Interpretation of the Law Jesus spent a great deal of His time interpreting the law for us. During the Sermon on the Mount Jesus proclaimed that people should put on God’s holiness. He taught the people of the very character of God. Jesus taught the law as the covenant between God and man and as the way to God. Jesus does not interpret the law as the Pharisees did which sought to enslave the people within a heavy yoke, which they were always unable to bear. The people thought to live under the law were simply struck down by the taskmaster’s lash. But here in Matthew, Jesus taught of love, and of forgiveness, which transcends the law. The Pharisees proclaimed traditions which laid outside the law and which were a lower standard of righteousness than that set forth by God’s pure Law. During the Sermon on the Mount Jesus gave examples of how tradition had been used to set aside the real intent of the Law. For example he said; You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous (Matt 5:43-45). If the people are obedient to laws which were not given by God then disobedience results, which leads to separation from God. Jesus interpreted the law so that the people would be made righteous through obedience to the law. Even Jesus said â€Å"For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven† (Matt 5:20). Moreover, He interpreted the law in a new light which offers mankind a view into the holy heart of God. Isaiah predicted that Jesus would teach the lawâ€Å"for the sake of his righteousness, to magnify his teaching and make it glorious† (Isa. 42:21). And this Jesus did for the sake of the Lord’s righteousness. Jesus’ Fulfillment of the Law Jesus came in fulfillment of the law. Jesus said Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. (Matt 5:17-18). He is the light at the end of the old covenant which shines brightly toward the future for those that would see. There were two avenues available to mankind under the law. The first avenue was total obedience and the second was death. If the way of obedience was not chosen then the only way to go was towards death. But theses avenues were dimly lit and the people strained to see which one was the right path to take. Our sinful nature prevents us from living in total obedience to the law as given from Moses, therefore there was only one outcome or one avenue for mankind which is death. But Jesus came in fulfillment of the law. Jesus walked on both avenues of the Law. He took the first avenue by living a life in absolute obedience to the Law. He was God manifested in the flesh. God became as a man and lived perfectly, because there was no sin within Him. On the first avenue, Jesus fulfilled the law, by living in obedience to its demands. Jesus also took the second avenue available to a man of flesh by dying for our sins. The law demanded death for anyone who did not live in obedience to it, and He died on behalf of everyone whose obedience waned. Therefore Jesus was the fulfillment of the law and through Him we can find life and not death if we chose to walk with him along the avenues of life. â€Å"Fretheim writes The Primal sin may thus best be defined as mistrust of God and God’s word, which then manifests itself in disobedience and other behaviors† (78). If we trust in God’s words then we will choose to be obedient to His words and his laws of holiness. If we chose disobedience then we choose death. But it is Jesus’ fulfillment of the law that gives us this gift of choice. It is God’s sacrifice of His only Son, who was made to suffer as flesh, blood and bone on this earth at the hands of the very beings He was sent to die for. It was Jesus’ fulfillment of the law that allows us to entertain the possibility of seeing God. Jesus’ and the Law Today Men argue today about the question of following the old covenant or following the new covenant. But the two covenants are meant to be intermingled in the hearts of men. The old covenant attends the new and the new covenant fulfills the old. Jesus’s obedience to the laws of the covenant imparts authority and thus is due our obedience. There are some that say Jesus ended the law, which is partly true since He is he fulfillment of the law and the term â€Å"fulfillment’ imparts a conclusion, or an ending to something. However, that is not to say that the law is no more. Indeed God’s law is unchanged. It was the traditions of man that sought to imprison mankind in their sinful flesh, which then brought eternal dependence on other men (e.g. Pharisees or Priests) to bring them back into the grace of God. Jesus offered us a new way into the grace of God and that way is found at Calvary. Jesus’ obedience to the law became a paradigm for the modern church. Suzanne Johnson writes that becoming a Christian includes â€Å"instruction in the sacred writings, the reshaping of ethical vision, and formation of ethical responsibilities† (19-20). Where does the Christian find a standard for this ethical vision or responsibilities? We are supposed to read the sacred writings which provide us with a standard and the example of a holy God, made flesh in the form of Jesus Christ. For many centuries the church followed the strict practices of man’s doctrine which they interpreted from the scriptures as the desire of God. Not so oddly, most of these adherences were geared towards practices that men detected in women. For example, for many years women were not allowed to speak in the church service. This practice was gleaned from Paul’s writings when he was addressing some problems in the church of Corinth. There were some traditions or practices that were set up for men also, like abstaining from the use of tobacco, foul language (which was determined by the society of that era), and the wearing of revealing clothing (e.g. short sleeve shirts). None of these traditions were practiced by Jesus or authorized according to His word. Even John said â€Å"Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him† (3:17). The church changes over time. It moves and sways with the society in which it exists, especially in regard to their boundaries, beliefs, and practices. What was once taboo, or forbidden, is now acceptable. The Church of God has twenty-nine practical and doctrinal commitments, but seven of these beliefs have to do with everyday living aspects given from interpretation of modern man (sgacog.org). The practical commitments have changed a great deal since the church was formed over 127 years ago. Men are trying way too hard to make it down that avenue of obedience. Jesus came to make it easier and yet, in our infinite wisdom and striving for excellence on our own merit, we have made it way more complicated that it actually is. Conclusion Jesus did not give any authority to the laws of man, but came to fulfill the laws of God alone. Jesus offers us examples of the law in his life and in His death. If we are to follow in His footsteps down the pathway of earthly life to eternal life, then we have to put down those beliefs and practices which serve only to separate men from each other and from God. It is in the practice of love and forgiveness that we shall find the heart of God. From the very beginning God had a plan to bring mankind back into an intimate relationship with him. He has given us the law so that we might find His Spirit dwelling in us through the blessing of obedience. Through God’s Spirit we find peace and light. Because God loves us so much He provided that the avenue we must follow is easy and joyful. To be obedient to God is to be blessed and joyful throughout one’s life. This law, which applies to all humankind for all time, is founded upon God’s holiness. God does not change and his holiness does not change, therefore the law does not change. It is the same loving guidance for every generation that was, that is, and that is to come. Fretheim declares, â€Å"The reason for the giving of the law is stated clearly: it is a gracious divine gift ‘so that you may live, and that it may go well with you, and that you may live long in the land’ (5:33)† (156). Why do we fight against the law of God? Is it because we have romanticized death through media messages which falsely present a passionate view of de ath, or is it because we cannot see that peace, life, and God–Himself- is found within the obedient existence. Jesus’ life would be a lie if it were not for the law. The law prophesized of his coming and of his sacrificial role. He came to live and die in the promises of God. There was no other reason for Jesus to come to this earth and die a terrible death, other than to fulfill the law. God said it, and since His word does not change, nor return void, it had to be so. If we look at no other scripture than Matthew 5:17-48 we can clearly define the role of the law and Jesus’ participation in the law. For in this scripture we see Jesus proclaim the law, Jesus interpret the law for all of mankind, Jesus fulfilled the law; and Jesus make the law applicable today, and forever and always. Works Cited Bruegemann, Walter. The Creative Word: Canon as a Model for Biblical Education. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982. Print. Fretheim, Terence E. The Pentateuch. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996. Print. Johnson, Susanne. Christian Spiritual Formation in the Church and Classroom. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1989. Print. New Revised Standard Version. Ed. Michael Coogan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print. South Georgia Church of God. â€Å"South Georgia Church of God.† 2010. Who We Are. Web. 17 October 2013.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Strait of Hormuz - History and Importance

Strait of Hormuz - History and Importance The Strait of Hormuz is a strategically important strait or narrow strip of water that links the Persian Gulf with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman (map). The strait is only 21 to 60 miles (33 to 95 km) wide throughout its length. The Strait of Hormuz is important because it is a geographic chokepoint and a main artery for the transport of oil from the Middle East. Iran and Oman are the countries nearest to the Strait of Hormuz and share territorial rights over the waters. Due to its importance, Iran has threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz several times in recent history. Â   Geographic Importance and History of the Strait of Hormuz In 2011, nearly 17 million barrels of oil, or almost 20% of the world’s traded oil flowed on ships through the Strait of Hormuz daily, for an annual total of more than six billion barrels of oil. An average of 14 crude oil ships passed through the strait per day in that year taking oil to destinations such as Japan, India, China and South Korea (U.S. Energy Information Administration). As a chokepoint the Strait of Hormuz is very narrow – just 21 miles (33 km) wide at its narrowest point and 60 miles (95 km) at its widest. The widths of the shipping lanes however are much narrower (about two miles (three km) wide in each direction) because the waters are not deep enough for oil tankers throughout the strait’s width. The Strait of Hormuz has been a strategic geographic chokepoint for many years and as such it has often been the site of conflict and there have been many threats by neighboring countries to close it. For example in the 1980s during the Iran-Iraq War Iran threatened to close the strait after Iraq disrupted shipping in the strait. In addition, the strait was also home to a battle between the United States Navy and Iran in April 1988 after the U.S. attacked Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. In the 1990s, disputes between Iran and the United Arab Emirates over control of several small islands within the Strait of Hormuz resulted in further treats to close the strait. By 1992 however, Iran took control of the islands but tensions remained in the region throughout the 1990s. In December 2007 and into 2008, a series of naval events between the United States and Iran took place in the Strait of Hormuz. In June of 2008 Iran asserted that if it were attacked by the U.S. the strait would be sealed off in an effort to damage the world’s oil markets. The U.S. responded by claiming that any closure of the strait would be treated as an act of war. This further increased tensions and showed the importance of the Strait of Hormuz on a worldwide scale. Â   Closure of the Strait of Hormuz Despite these current and past threats, the Strait of Hormuz has never actually been closed off and many experts claim that it will not be. This is mainly due to the fact that Iran’s economy depends on the shipment of oil through the strait. In addition any closure of the strait would likely cause a war between Iran and the U.S. and generate new tensions between Iran and countries like India and China. Instead of closing the Strait of Hormuz, experts say it is more likely that Iran will make shipment through the region difficult or slow with such activities as seizing ships and raiding facilities. To learn more about the Strait of Hormuz, read the Los Angeles Times’ article, What is the Strait of Hormuz? Can Iran Shut Off Access to Oil? and The Strait of Hormuz and Other Foreign Policy Chokepoints from US Foreign Policy at About.com.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Secret Recipe Essay Essays

Secret Recipe Essay Essays Secret Recipe Essay Essay Secret Recipe Essay Essay Background Secret Recipe. a popular life style coffeehouse concatenation. has become a family name following its introduction in 1997. Secret Recipe has successfully established in brandname in Malaysia. Singapore. Indonesia. Thailand. China. Philippines. Pakistan. Brunei and Australia by virtuousness of its all right quality bars. merger nutrient and typical service. A prima and largest coffeehouse concatenation in Malaysia. with Halal enfranchisement awarded by Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia ( JKIM ) . Secret Recipe in committed to go on frog here to the criterions of readyings of all nutrient and processing works in the eating house in conformity to the regulative guideline including HACCP and VHM guidelines. Customers can ever bask in assurance from more than 20 types of merger nutrient. 40 bars creative activities and pastries. with a flavorful scope of ice pick and drinks offered in all Secret Recipe mercantile establishments. In a short period of 13 old ages. Secret Recipe has experienced a rapid growing of over one hundred and fifty ( 150 ) coffeehouse throughout the part. Secret Recipe continuously strives to surplus its ain achievements and to be recognized as a leader in the industry. Strengths 1. Brand Secret Recipe has strong term on trade name edifice earlier on by constructing easy to retrieve logo. corporate coloring material. selling schemes. uniforms. bill of fare layout. Interior design and client service criterions to differ than others. 2. Merchandise The merchandises offered at Secret Recipe are high in standard and quality. which specially crafted and tailored by the Secret Recipe. The merchandises are besides closely monitored to keep their quality at their production works in KlangValley and the eating house besides offers broad choices of secret formula of homemadecakes. baked sweets. drinks. merger nutrients and many others 3. Selling Secret Recipe have the strength in footings of cost every bit good as the selling channels. They have utilized assorted methods of advertisement and selling through cyberspace. booklets. catalogues. circulars. newspapers and telecasting advertizement and many others. They besides offered particular bars and bill of fare during particular juncture such as Valentine’sDay. Mother’s Day and others. 4. Franchised System Franchise system is advantageous for Secret Recipe as they have the rights and entree to informations from the central offices. All the trim operational systems. buying systems. hive awaying. merchandises. service s criterions. selling and many others has bring easiness of operations for Secret Recipe and minimise the drawbacks.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf Review

'Mrs. Dalloway' by Virginia Woolf Review Mrs. Dalloway is a complex and compelling modernist novel by  Virginia Woolf. It is a wonderful study of its principal characters. The novel enters into the consciousness of the people it takes as it subjects, creating a powerful, psychologically authentic effect. Although quite rightly numbered amongst the most famed modernist writers - such as Proust,  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Joyce, and  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Lawrence - Woolf is often considered to be a much gentler artist, lacking the darkness of the male contingent of the movement. With Mrs. Dalloway, though, Woolf created a visceral and unyielding vision of madness and a haunting descent into its depths. Overview Mrs. Dalloway follows a set of characters as they go about their lives on a normal day. The eponymous character, Clarissa Dalloway, does simple things: she buys some flowers, walks in a park, is visited by an old friend and throws a party. She speaks to a man who was once in love with her, and who still believes that she settled by marrying her politician husband. She talks to a female friend with whom she was once in love. Then, in the final pages of the book, she hears about a poor lost soul who threw himself from a doctors window onto a line of railings. Septimus This man is the second character central in Mrs. Dalloway. His name is Septimus Smith. Shell-shocked after his experiences in  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹World War I, he is a so-called madman who hears voices. He was once in love with a fellow soldier named Evansa ghost who haunts him throughout the novel. His infirmity is rooted in his fear and his repression of this forbidden love. Finally, tired of a world that he believes is false and unreal, he commits suicide. The two characters whose experiences form the core of the novel - Clarissa and Septimus - share a number of similarities. In fact, Woolf saw Clarissa and Septimus as more like two different aspects of the same person, and the linkage between the two is emphasized by a series of stylistic repetitions and mirrorings. Unbeknownst to Clarissa and Septimus, their paths cross a number of times throughout the day - just as some of the situations in their lives followed similar paths.Clarissa and Septimus were in love with a person of their own sex, and both repressed their loves because of their social situations. Even as their lives mirror, parallel, and cross - Clarissa and Septimus take different paths in the final moments of the novel. Both are existentially insecure in the worlds they inhabit - one chooses life, while the other commits suicide. A Note on Style of Mrs. Dalloway Woolfs style - she is one of the most foremost proponents of what has become known as stream of consciousness - allows readers into the minds and hearts of her characters. She also incorporates a level of psychological realism that Victorian novels were never able to achieve. The every day is seen in a new light: internal processes are opened up in her prose, memories compete for attention, thoughts arise unprompted, and the deeply significant and the utterly trivial are treated with equal importance. Woolfs prose is also enormously poetic. She has a very special ability to make the ordinary ebb and flow of the mind sing.Mrs. Dalloway is linguistically inventive, but the novel also has an enormous amount to say about its characters. Woolf handles their situations with dignity and respect. As she studies Septimus and his deterioration into madness, we see a portrait that draws considerably from Woolfs own experiences. Woolfs stream of consciousness-style leads us to experience the m adness. We hear the competing voices of sanity and insanity. Woolfs vision of madness does not dismiss Septimus as a person with a biological defect. She treats the consciousness of the madman as something apart, valuable in itself, and something from which the wonderful tapestry of her novel could be woven.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Marketing Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Marketing Research - Essay Example   In 2001, BzzAgent sought to create a platform that â€Å"would allow people to experience new products and services, share their honest opinions with people they knew and report those activities and opinions so marketers could directly see the results† (What is BzzAgent?). The company claims that it has since generated positive responses from businesses in promoting their diverse products and services. From 50 programs after two years operations, it has already handled a total of some 350 programs, recruiting some 2,000 to 4,000 â€Å"volunteers† each week which are being added to its current list of some 370,000 members in the United States, Canada, and U.K. Essentially, buzz marketing seeks to initiate involvement of enlisted individuals (called buzz agents) in directly influencing, through their social networks, would-be consumers through word of mouth instead of first creating  consumer satisfaction naturally. Conversations where positive buzz is injected can take place in the workplace, in social gatherings (meetings and parties), store aisles, playfields, and in online communities, among other venues. How are agents chosen?   From the list of agents the company can pick the right agents on the basis of their demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics.   BzzAgent provides such services as recruitment, management and communications, polls and surveys, 24-hour access to live program data, as well as data analysis and metrics, from quantitative impact of the campaign to the insights about attitudes and perceptions. (What is BzzAgent?) It has been shown that word of mouth is considerably more effective than conventional corporate media advertising because receivers of such referrals tend to trust that the communicator is honest and has no ulterior motive in talking positively about a particular brand or  product. Besides, buzz marketing has an edge over other promotional methods

Friday, October 18, 2019

Employment law Uk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Employment law Uk - Essay Example Under that subsection once the employer has shown that the reason for dismissal was redundancy the determination of the question whether the dismissal is fair or unfair is determined by the Tribunal and takes into account whether in the circumstances (including the size and administrative resources of the employer's undertaking) the employer acted reasonably or unreasonably in treating it as a sufficient reason for dismissing the employee in accordance with equity and the substantial merits of the case. Following the business reorganisation in March 2005 L claimed it genuinely needed to make 3 members of staff redundant. The employer merely has to show that there is a good business reason for the reorganisation and that it will result in a strengthening of the business: Hollister v National Farmers' Union [1979]. Although this case falls under the 'other substantial reason' head the fact that the National Farmers' Union (NFU) reorganised its insurance business to benefit the running of the business was held to be a 'good business reason' to dismiss an employee who would not accept the variation in his contract terms. "it is possible for an employer to use such a situation as a pretext for getting rid of an employee he wishes to dismiss. It is for the tribunal in each case to see whether on all the evidence, the employer has shown them what was the reason for dismissal." L has admitted that M was dismissed due to her sickness record, and not simply because of the need to reorganise the business. Where an employee has a long-term health issue which effectively frustrates the contract, it is possible to legitimately dismiss him/her provided there has been a fair review of attendance record and appropriate warnings have been given: International Sports Co Ltd v Thomson [1980]. Whether the dismissal is 'fair' turns on the interpretation of s98(4) of the ERA 1996. In Iceland Frozen Foods v Jones [1983] Browne-Wilkinson J said: "there is a band of reasonable responses to the employee's conduct within which one employer might reasonably take one view.If the dismissal falls within the band the dismissal is fair." On the facts L has made no attempt to address M's sick

Middle East in world affairs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Middle East in world affairs - Essay Example e who have sacrificially dedicated their lives into trying to bring resolutions between the Israelis and the Palestinians through the use of non violent measures. The film is a close look at the constant growing foundations of the peace movements among the Israelis and the Palestinians (Kuriansky 66). It is in general a replication of the various conflicts surrounding the equal parties. The exploration of the lives of both the Israelis and the Palestinians into the numerous citizens’ lives in both areas has created this symmetry. This is the occurrence of the various lives that have constantly been hurt by the loss of the citizens and have considered the side of peace in order to resolve conflict. The fact that the Israelis and the Palestinians have chosen peace over revenge creates a pact of proper symmetry between the two parties thus inculcating a value of the grass roots of the two communities. The film in itself creates a factor that does not involve the politicians since what the politicians have, is easily blown away but what they have in place as a community is of value and is thus held close to their lives to avoid slipping aw ay from them. This film thus stands as a documentary that reverberates to show and interview ordinary people who achieve peace on both sectors. For instance in the movie, Robi Damelin, a mother who has got an Israeli origin has lost her son and reckons together with Ali Abu Awwad, a Palestinian (Kuriansky 230). This Palestinian has also lost a brother and several other members of the family and thus they connect. The social aspect of both parties is seen to come out strong in the lives of the two parties and is an inspiring story. The film is void of subjectivity and incorporates both communities equally without discrimination of one party. These are citizens who are working together for the everyday living towards peace away from destruction. The other factor of the constant dialogues between the communities creates symmetry.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEWS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEWS - Essay Example There are rumors that some executives of HP may have tried to halt the appointment of the CEO by hiding Autonomy’s negative information. The reports are suggestive of lack of transparency at HP, if things are not more serious. The impact of the latest revelations on HP cannot be predicted with utmost surety at this time, but if HP is found guilty in the future, thus would lead to a big black eye with respect to the public relations. HP might have to face litigation accordingly. Contrary to the perception that there is no more place of new mobile phones in the world, a range of next-generation models will be introduced at the Mobile World Congress (MWS) 2014 (Cutlack). Samsung and Sony have made exceptions by demonstrating their new mobile models at separate events in 2013. This year’s MWC will display new tech such as bendable screens. Companies like Samsung have advertised their new models that will be displayed in MWS

A marketing research on consumer behavior, focusing on car selection Paper

A marketing on consumer behavior, focusing on car selection on the brand-Honda - Research Paper Example (Hoyer & MacInnis 221) Research on consumer behavior provides firms with information about their target market and the business environment. Researchers provide a careful analysis of the firm’s plans, activities and methods. Relationships that are of interest to consumer researchers are classified as â€Å"correlations and causal†, which is similar to the cause and effect situation. A correlation occurs when statistics among the factors have significant relationship. Examples of variables are advertising and research which can be the subject of correlation research. There is positive correlation when two variables act at the same time. There is negative correlation in a situation where two variables are in opposite direction. Advertising and sales are correlated positively since both increase at the same time. On the other hand, product defects and customer regard for the product have a negative correlation; meaning, as product defects are seen or felt, customer is diss atisfied. (Kardes et al. 368) Consumer behaviour involves the study of psychology and sociology, and it is important to apply this on the Honda market segment. Sociology includes study of different cultures. Culture influences the American decision-making process and their decision to buy. Advertising and promotion can be considered one of these factors, or, it could be that advertising and promotion are the outcome of these factors since these elements take into consideration consumer behaviour first before they are being programmed. â€Å"Gen Yers† are those born between 1977 and 1995 and who will constitute over one-third of the US population by 2015 and now believed the largest U.S. market segment. At present, they account to about 7% of the present US population (qtd. in Rajamma et al. 388). Gen Yers are demanding when it comes to quality. In an October 2008 survey of the U.S. adult population, quality was listed as the number one factor by 86 percent of respondents â₠¬Å"in their next car purchase,† while 82 percent listed safety and 74 percent said fuel economy was their number one priority (Cole and Flynn 67). This essay aims to investigate consumer behavior of Honda of America (HAM) customers who prefer to buy Honda cars and other products despite the popularity and quality make of other brands. The Automotive Industry Statistics from the American Customer Satisfaction Index tell us that the automotive industry

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEWS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEWS - Essay Example There are rumors that some executives of HP may have tried to halt the appointment of the CEO by hiding Autonomy’s negative information. The reports are suggestive of lack of transparency at HP, if things are not more serious. The impact of the latest revelations on HP cannot be predicted with utmost surety at this time, but if HP is found guilty in the future, thus would lead to a big black eye with respect to the public relations. HP might have to face litigation accordingly. Contrary to the perception that there is no more place of new mobile phones in the world, a range of next-generation models will be introduced at the Mobile World Congress (MWS) 2014 (Cutlack). Samsung and Sony have made exceptions by demonstrating their new mobile models at separate events in 2013. This year’s MWC will display new tech such as bendable screens. Companies like Samsung have advertised their new models that will be displayed in MWS

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Anti-Federalists Objections to the Constitution Essay

The Anti-Federalists Objections to the Constitution - Essay Example The Anti-federalists believed that the power of the government should be concentrated in the legislature since it was the most democratic branch. They maintained that such a government offered the United States citizens the best protection for their essential rights. The Anti-federalist argued that the only way to ensure there existed democracy was through the allocation of power through particular texts. Therefore, they feared that the constitution that was being endorsed by the federalists delegated excess powers to the central government instead of these powers going to the states. They also pointed out that there was allocation of more authority to the judiciary and executive at the expense of the congress. It was explicitly clear in their minds that the federalists and their supporters were threatening the freedoms that Americans had defended against the Britain. Brutus incorporated these ideas into his attack against the proposed constitution. He suggests that a large republic would not succeed in a large country like the United States since it comprises of citizens who are diverse in many ways. According to him, such diversity would interfere with the operations and smooth running of the central government since many opinions and ideas would clash. Brutus believes that a republic can work in a small society like a state (Storing 37). Brutus also argued that the liberties of the US citizens were in danger since the federal government was being given a lot of powers that can be misused for personal gains. He gave examples of Britain and Rome where power had been misused and advised Americans not to follow the same trend. The freedom of the commonwealth was denied and their constitution overturned by their strong army which had been given powers. Julius Cesar who was appointed to lead the command capitalized on the loopholes in the constitution and changed it from a free republic into despotism. He also pointed out that the fear from a large standing army w as that the rulers may use them to promote their personal ambitions. They could also overturn the governments’ constitutional powers and gain their own powers to enable them dictate the US people. Brutus and other Anti-federalists advocates looked at themselves as the defenders of a self government that was going to offer outstanding leadership to the people of America. They supported leadership in small republics or the states with the rulers accessing limited powers that can not be misused. By giving examples of Rome and Britain where power had been misused, Brutus wanted the Federalists to learn from other countries and make adequate changes to the constitution. James Madison opposed the objections from the Anti-federalists by arguing that the government had to be designed to stop the politicians and the people from using it for their own selfish gains. He had contributed immensely to the constitution and this is why he countered the objections from the Anti-federalists st rongly. Among the many common features in the constitution was the idea of a balanced government system where the national authority was limited and reserving definite powers to the people through the local government. Madison also made other key contributions to the constitution such as the creation of a national legislature and the national chief executive. His strongest argument in support for the constitution was that, it had come up with a strong government capable of controlling the

Patient Safety in Rural Nursing Because of Nursing Shortage Essay Example for Free

Patient Safety in Rural Nursing Because of Nursing Shortage Essay The United States is in the midst of a nursing shortage that is being increasingly discussed in the context of declining healthcare facilities in the nation. Over 1 in 7 hospitals (15%) report a severe RN nursing shortage with more than 20% of their nursing positions vacant and 80%-85% of hospitals report that they have a nurse shortage This shortage is predicted to intensify over the next decade or two as nurses belonging to the generation of baby boomers retire. The Nursing Management Aging Workforce Survey released in July 2006 by the Bernard Hodes Group reveals that 55% of surveyed nurses and nurse managers reported their intention to retire between 2011 and 2020 (AACN, 2006). In April 2006, officials with the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) released projections that the nations nursing shortage would grow to more than one million nurses by the year 2020 (HRSA, 2003). Nursing colleges and universities are struggling to expand enrollment levels. In the report titled â€Å"What is Behind HRSAs Projected Supply, Demand, and Shortage of Registered Nurses? † analysts show that all 50 states will experience a shortage of nurses to varying degrees by the year 2015 (AACN, 2006). Factors driving the growth in demand for nurses include: an 18 % increase in the population; a larger proportion of elderly persons requiring proportionally higher levels of medical care; advances in medical technology that heighten the need for nurses; an increase in the number of work settings for nurses and demographic changes in an increasing U.  S. population (HRSA, 2003). Factors that are causing a decrease in the supply of nurses are: the declining number of nursing school enrollees, graduates and faculty; the aging of the registered nurse workforce; work environment issues leading to job burnout and dissatisfaction; high nurse turnover and vacancy rates; and declines in relative earnings (HRSA, 2003). Due to this critical imbalance between the supply and demand of nurses, the United States is today facing a nursing shortage crisis. Nursing shortage in rural settings: Research shows that nursing shortage as defined by the federal government exists mainly in rural areas of the country that are far away from metropolitan areas. These areas suffer more from nursing shortage than urban areas due to lack of economic resources to compete with urban based employers, inadequate training for nurses to practice in rural settings and dependence on non-hospital care settings in the rural areas. According to a paper published by the National Clearinghouse for Frontier Communities, â€Å"Impacts and Innovations in Frontier America† (December 2004), nurse shortages in frontier and rural communities derive not only from the current national shortage of nurses but also a long-standing trend favoring rural-to-urban migration of the educated, skilled workforce. There is also the issue of money. When examined by rurality, LPNs in rural settings ($21,941) report an income 23% lower than that reported by LPNs in urban settings ($28,408) (NCSBN, 2006). A large number of rural communities are losing existing employment and education opportunities and the paper suggests that the community context of a nurse shortage can be addressed only through community-based development approaches as well as the crafting of healthy rural policies. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation published a report titled The American Nursing Shortage with the help of its researchers Bobbi Kimball and Edward ONeil. According to this report, even when some people feel a calling for the professions such as nursing, they are deterred by certain dimensions of the lifestyle, such as low pay, compulsory mobility and the need for service in rural areas. Available data and literature suggest that the impact of the nursing shortage on rural and frontier communities varies greatly from community to community. IN some rural places, there is no difficulty in filling vacancies but there may be just a few good paying jobs. However, in most rural areas, recruiting for openings is estimated to take about 60 percent longer to fill than in urban areas (Long 2000). Nurse employers receive many applications but often find applicants do not meet desired qualifications and then, they often have to accept lower qualifications to fill positions. Differences in education between frontier and non-frontier nurses exist both in their basic nursing education and the highest degree earned (FEC, 2003). Fully half of frontier nurses had qualified as RNs through associate degree (ADN) programs, in comparison with 40% of the non-frontier nurses; in contrast, non-frontier nurses were more likely to have attended diploma or BSN programs. Differences remain when looking at highest degree received; 44% of frontier nurses’ highest degree is the ADN, in contrast with 34% of the non-frontier nurses. And, while the percentage of nurses who have earned a bachelors degree is slightly lower among frontier nurses (30% frontier, 33% non-frontier), the percentage who has earned masters degrees is also lower among frontier (7% frontier compared with 10% non-frontier) (FEC, 2003). At Prairie Vista Nursing Home in Holyoke, Colorado, a town of about 1,900 people about 130 miles northeast of Denver, administrators reportedly had to work double shifts to cover shifts after a nurse retired. Recruiting nurses to work in rural areas is difficult to begin with; and, when urban-trained nurses enter rural practice, they often find they are ill-prepared for the demands of the job, contributing to job dissatisfaction and turnover. Once there, they typically find it difficult to access continuing education opportunities that fit their needs. â€Å"When educators bring their knowledge to us, they often do not realize that we practice differently than urban centers do† (rural nurse, quoted in Molinari 2001). In the rural setting, nurses typically fill multiple roles. There is a need for a broad range of skills and cross training in multiple jobs. â€Å"Rural nursing requires a high level of generalist skills and critical thinking† (Fahs, Findholt et al. 2003). Another issue is that the ethnic composition of the rural nurse workforce does not correspond with the population it serves. The ANA Rural Nursing module identifies five factors that affect rural nursing practice: threats to anonymity and confidentiality; traditional gender roles; geographic isolation; professional isolation; and scarce resources (Bushy 2004). Patient safety for nursing shortage in rural settings: Surveys and studies published recently confirm that the shortage of registered nurses is impacting the delivery of health care in the U. S. and negatively affecting patient outcomes. Research now shows that how well patients are cared for by nurses affects their health, and sometimes can be a matter of life or death. These studies have found that (HRSA, 2003): †¢ A total of 53% of physicians and 65% of the public cited the shortage of nurses as a leading cause of medical errors (Harvard School of Public Health, 2002,); A higher proportion of nursing care and a greater number of hours of care by nurses per day are associated with better outcomes for hospitalized patients (Needleman et al. , 2002); †¢ Nursing actions, such as ongoing monitoring of patient’s health status, are directly related to better health outcomes (Kahn et al. , 1990) ; †¢ 126,000 nurses are needed immediately to fill vacancies at our Nations hospitals. Today, 75% of all hospital vacancies are for nurses (American Organization of Nurse Executives, 2002); Low nurse staffing levels have contributed to 24% of unanticipated events in hospitals that resulted in death, injury or permanent loss of function (Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002); †¢ Patients who have common surgeries in hospitals with low nurse-to-patient ratios have an up to 31% increased chance of dying. Every additional patient in an average hospital nurses workload increased the risk of death in surgical patients by 7% (Aiken et. al. , 2002); Low nursing staff levels were a contributing factor in 24% of hospitals’ reports of patient deaths and injuries since 1996 (Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002); †¢ Less nursing time provided to patients is associated with higher rates of infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, pneumonia, cardiac arrest, and death from these and other causes (Needleman et al. , 2002); and †¢ Nurse executives surveyed indicated that staffing shortages are contributing to emergency department overcrowding and the need to close beds (American Organization of Nurse Executives, 2002). The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002 has issued a warning that failure to address the problem of nursing shortage in rural areas will result in increased deaths, complications, lengths-of-stay and other undesirable patient outcomes. JCAHO examined 1,609 hospital reports of patient deaths and injuries since 1996 and found that low nursing staff levels were a contributing factor in 24% of the cases (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002). New research indicates that a shortage of registered nurses prepared at the baccalaureate and higher degree level is endangering patients. In an article in the September 24, 2003 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Linda Aiken and her colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania found that patients experience significantly lower mortality and failure to rescue rates in hospitals where more baccalaureate-prepared nurses provide direct patient care. At least 1,700 preventable deaths could have been realized in Pennsylvania hospitals alone if baccalaureate-prepared nurses had comprised 60% of the nursing staff and the nurse-to-patient ratios had been set at 1 to 4. Unfortunately, only 11% of PA hospitals have more than 50% of the nursing staff prepared at the baccalaureate level ( Institute of Medicine, 2003). A survey titled â€Å"Views of Practicing Physicians and the Public on Medical Errors†, conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation reported in the December 12, 2002 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine found that 53% of physicians and 65% of the public cited the shortage of nurses as a leading cause of medical errors. Overall, 42% of the public and more than a third of U. S. octors reported that they or their family members have experienced medical errors in the course of receiving medical care (AACN, 2006). Nurse researchers at the University of Pennsylvania determined that patients who have common surgeries in hospitals with high nurse-to-patient ratios have an up to 31% increased chance of dying. Funded by the National Institute for Nursing Research, the study found that every additional patient in an average hospital nurses workload increased the risk of death in surgical patients by 7% (AACN, 2006). According to an extensive study by Dr.  Jack Needleman and Peter Buerhas, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2002, a higher proportion of nursing care provided by RNs and a greater number of hours of care by RNs per day are associated with better outcomes for hospitalized patients (AACN, 2006). Conclusion: Available data and literature suggest that the issue of nurse shortage is a national one. Yet, the impact of nurse shortage is better seen in the rural areas where nurses are not well paid, existing nurses are not well qualified and patients are dependent on local medical facilities. Because most frontier and rural communities are distant from hospitals, residents may rely on non-hospital based care settings for a greater proportion of their care than their urban counterparts. Due to these reasons, nurse shortage in rural areas has endangered patient safety. Nurses are the primary source of care and support in the health care sector and hence, a sufficient supply of nurses is critical in providing the national and especially the rural population with quality health care. Nurses are expected to play an even larger role in the future.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The market allocates resources

The market allocates resources Introduction The market allocates resources efficiently by the price system. The invisible hand of Adam Smith is a system of prices, which will promote the producers and consumers making their own decision. Consumers make purchase decisions on the basis of utility maximization while producers make marketing decisions according to the principle of profit maximization. Based on the changes in prices, the markets guide resources toward the most efficient aspects of allocation between supply and demand. Chandler (1977) presented that the enterprises internal administration and coordination as the visible hand was replacing the visible hand of market mechanisms. With the rise of modern business enterprise and its managers, the large modern enterprise was gradually replaced the small traditional family firm and was taking over the coordination function of economy activities and resource allocations, as well as its management team were becoming the most influential group of economic decision makers. Actually, the visible hand is not a denial of the visible hand. The effect of both invisible hand and visible hand is conditional. Therefore, the visible hand was not completely replacing the visible hand; it was a kind of supplement and development of the invisible hand from the perspective of administrative coordination. How effective the market allocates resources For market, the price system is the coordinating device that takes care of allocation. Price, which makes balance between the consumers demands and the producers supply, is achieved through interaction in the market. The process of market interaction is what we call the invisible hand. Demand and supply affect the market interaction. On one hand, consumers demand for a commodity depends on its price to a large extent. The total demand will go up if the price goes down. This is the rule of demand. On the other hand, the total supply of goods is also determined by its price. The total supply will go up if the price goes up. This is the law of supply. Figure 1 illustrates that when a commodity oversupply and the price will drop, on the contrary, it will stimulate consumption, so that increase the demand. Besides, it will inhibit the production, hence reduce the supply. Market equilibrium occurs when the supply curve and demand curve meet. The meeting point of supply and demand needs to be achieved through price adjustments. At this time, resources will be allocated in a variety of purposes through price. The market will out of equilibrium no matter supply excess demand or demand overrun supply. The price will then be adjusted until equilibrium comes back. However, the invisible hand is not a panacea. In real life, the market has its limitation in allocating resources. The invisible hand of market can be effectively only in the perfectly competitive market. Public goods, externality, monopoly, market control lag, as well as the unbalanced information may lead to the disorder and chaos of the market economy. For example, according to statistics from Sina Finance, there were 80 big department stores in 2005 in Beijing. A Beijing persons average purchasing power was one- third of a persons buying power in Tokyo, while the number of large shopping malls was 8 times greater than it in Tokyo. This Phenomenon made a general decline in department stores economic benefits, thus malls closed down one after another. It shows that market has a certain degree of blindness and the market mechanism does not always achieve their ideal state. The management was affecting the economy as a Visible Hand Chandler posed the Visible hand of management, which was playing an ever-increasing key role in the allocation of resources. Today, the companies are not the small workshops anymore in the time of Adam Smith. Modern business enterprises were replacing small traditional enterprises. Some of them can be as rich as a country, which have great powers to directly affect national economy and even politics; moreover, they may make sense to the relationships between countries as well. The companys management was playing a significant impact on the allocation of resources. Chandler indicates that before the rise of the modern enterprise, the small personally owned and managed firm was a single-unite firm, which charges a single economic function and operating a single product line in one location. Thus the activities of these small traditional enterprises were coordinated and controlled by market and price system. In contrast, most of the modern business enterprise is multi-unit enterprise, which has its own administrative office, handles various types of products and services and operates diverse types of economic activities in different areas. Therefore the activity of these unites and transactions between them were internalized. They were coordinated and controlled by salaried managers rather than market mechanisms. As some propositions which Chandler mentioned in The Visible Hand (1977), can provide that the visible hand of management coordination was replacing the invisible hand of market mechanisms. Fist of all, small traditional business will replaced by modern multiunit business when administrative coordination allowed lower costs, greater productivity, and higher profits than coordination by market mechanisms. Modern enterprises interiorized the transactions, which transacted between some business units before. This internalization may reduce transaction costs and information costs, improve productivity, provide a more stable cash flow and thus reduce costs to improved profits. Secondly, only by forming a formal managerial hierarchy can the advantages of the internal activities of many business units be created. In modern business enterprises, middle managers control and coordinate the production and distribution in the company. Meanwhile, top managers are not only evaluate and coordinate with the intermediate managers, but also replaced the market for future production and distribution of resource allocation. Thirdly, the management system promotes the companys specialization and sustainable development. The majority of the traditional enterprises are partnerships and family firms, which were always short-lived. In contrast, management hierarchy allows the functions of company be maintained even the staff turnover and makes the salaried managers becoming more professional through various formal trainings. The managerial authority and ownership of enterprise can be divided when the business scale and the scope of operational diversity of business developed to a certain level, meanwhile the manager become more and more professional From the viewpoint of Chandler, to manage and coordinate this visible hands, compared to the invisible hands, could not only bring huge productivity and profits, but also enhance the competitiveness of capital. Thus, it could largely promote the productivity and consumption which caused by the revolution of organization management. That is what called the revolution of business enterprise management It cannot be denied that the visible hand has become a more and more crucial role in the contemporary economy, but there are still some defects in the view of Chandlers visible hand. First of all, Chandlers over-praise of the executive of corporation is just partly making sense to some extent. Managers may hide various levels of opportunism and potential trickery, such as the Enron scandal, as well as high-paying CEO scandal. Secondly, Chandlers understanding of large enterprise is not entirely accurate. Enterprises are expanding for large enterprises, because there is some kind of asset specificity. Enterprises expanding the scale do not mean that it is capable enough to build up its strength. Take the American slaughter Gustavus in 19th century as an example, he run a train transport business and freezer factory because it was the best way that he could control the quality and efficiency of meat-packing. He worried about that he would be plot in secret by his competitor if buying t ransport services and freezers from others. It is obviously that internal management of large enterprise would not substitute the regulatory action of market, the visible hand would play a role only in the case of management mechanism can produce greater productivity than the market mechanism and internal coordination costs are cheaper than the market transaction costs. To sum up, the market allocates resources efficiently by making equilibrium between demand and supply through the price system, while the visible hand coordinates and allocates resources by management. Every sword has its two sides. Both the invisible hand and the visible hand have their strength and weakness. The visible hand can not totally replace the visible hand, while the visible hand is the supplement and development of the invisible hand from the aspect of management coordination. They supplement each other to ensure the allocation of resource processed efficiently. References: Alfred D., Jr. Chandler (1977) The Visible Hand The Managerial Revolution in American Business Massachusetts and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. P.1-4, P6-9 Eitan Goldman Gary Gorton (2000 ) The Visible Hand, The Invisible Hand And Efficiency. National Bureau of Economic Research. JEL NO.D21, G30 Economypedia [online]. [Accessed 1th December 2009]. Available from World Wide Web : Economypedia [online]. [Accessed 1th December 2009]. Available from World Wide Web : Jintang Wang Wenfan Zhong (1995) Modern American large enterprise and American society. Wuhan: Wuhan University Press. P3-5 Wikipedia [online]. [Accessed 1th December 2009]. Available from World Wide Web : Wikipedia [online]. [Accessed 1th December 2009]. Available from World Wide Web : Sean, Douma Hein, Schreuder (2008) Economic Approaches to Organizations Essex: Pearson Education. P.3-5, P9-10, P12-19, P28-38, P42-44, P46-51, P56-60 Sina [online]. [Accessed 1th December 2009]. Available from World Wide Web :

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Benefits of Advances in Communication for the Visual or Hearing Imp

The Benefits of Advances in Communication for the Visual or Hearing Impaired Language is a means of communication that people use to interact with others in society. Generally, language comprises vocal sounds to which meanings have been assigned by cultural convention and often supplemented by various gestures. (Sharma, 30) For any 'normal' person, language is no longer viewed as a tool to acquire: language is placed as a standard and basic skill, almost being considered given at birth. Such an idea about language is reasonable when taking into account how the development of speech and language is acquired in early childhood. But as a rule, such a 'standard and basic' process of language development is only relevant to 'normal' people, those without any sensory impairments such as blindness or deafness. For the blind and the deaf, acquiring and developing language is a studious process - the blind having to depend extensively on their hearing, and the deaf depending extensively on their vision. With restricted sensory abilities on thorough development of language, both the blind and the deaf can be limited to possible communication and interaction with others in society. Consequently, many computer related technological inventions and improvements have been developed, and both the blind and the deaf have significantly benefited from these innovations as a way of having wider access and use of language in day-to-day living. Indeed until an emergence of technological innovations, the blind and the deaf suffered limited access of communication and interaction with others, among many other things. In order to fully understand and analyze affects of technological innovations on language development, social interactions, a... ...arry. Working with Braille, a study of Braille as a medium of communication. Switzerland: Unesco 1981 Holbrook, Cay M. Ph.D., ed. CHILDREN with VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS a Parents' Guide. Woodbine House, 1996. Lewis, Morris Michael. How Children learn to speak. London, Harrap [c1957] Oesterreich, Lesia. Understanding children, Language development. April, 2004. Sharma, Vimlesh. Cognitive Styles and Language Comprehension of The Blind. Delhi, India. 2001 Sterne, A and Goswami, UC (2000) 'Phonological awareness of syllables, onset-rime units and phonemes in deaf children' in Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, vol. 41, no. 5, July 2000, pp. 609-626. General information from DEAFSA and American Foundation for the Blind

Friday, October 11, 2019

Evaluate The Ways in Which Emotion Might Enhance and/or Undermine Reasoning as a Way of Knowing Essay

To start this essay I will define the most important words as I understand them therefore emotion and reasoning will be defined and second I will explain the question. Emotion is what we feel as a reaction towards a person or situation for example: anger, love, and fear. Reasoning is logic, how we argument something, the way we make decisions or how we think and therefore it is how we react to situations. This question is asking us to explain how emotion can make it easier or harder to reason appropriately so it becomes a better or worse way of knowing. Emotion has a very big influence on most people’s way of reasoning sometimes it makes this reasoning more reliable and in other cases emotion makes it less reliable. In the following essay the question will be answered from both sites. Emotion might enhance and/or undermine reasoning in several ways for example when you are happy you reason in a positive way but if you are sad or in a bad mood you reasoning is more negative. For example a man that had been promoted in his job he has a car accident and his car is in a very bad state, he firstly will think about that his insurance will pay for the damage. In the other site if a man has been fired from his job and he has a car accident under the same conditions as that other man, the first thing he will think about is his bad luck and what he will do without his car and the last thing he will think about is about his insurance. Emotion might enhance reasoning as a way of knowing because it may encourage you to reason for example if someone really likes chemistry and enjoys the class, if the teacher asks a question then this person will reason faster to answer the question than a person that took the class only because the physics teacher didn’t accept him in the class. As well when a scientist is enthusiastic about doing an investigation because he loves the subject then he will do the experiment as accurate as he can but if he just does it because it is his job then he will do the experiment as fast as he can just to finish it. Emotion might also undermine reasoning because when emotions are involved people may do things wrongly without thinking about them correctly or without using any logic. A famous quote says â€Å"love makes blind† this means that love (an emotion) takes people to an unreal world and making their reasoning capacity limited. For example if a boy walks into a party and sees his girlfriend kissing his best friend and then she tells him that his best friend kissed her and she couldn’t push him away. Let’s say that the boy really loves his girlfriend then he will believe her even if the story is very unreal. This proves that emotion can make people reasoning unreliable and wrong. In my personal opinion I believe that emotion undermine reasoning as a way of knowing because it makes peoples logic limited and uncertain so the reasoning of this person is unreliable. Also emotions are not always encouraging for example let’s say a woman that works organizing parties lost her dog so she is depressed then she is not able to do her job because she can not think about anything apart from her lost dog. This proves that emotion is not very useful when it comes to reason.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Mr collins proposal to elizabeth Essay

How does Austen use humour to portray Mr Collins and his proposal? Austen presents Mr Collins to be the most unwillingly comical character in the whole novel through his extreme idiocy and pomposity. From Austen’s description of Mr Collins it is clear that he is self satisfied, proud and serious. â€Å"Mingling with a very good opinion of himself, of his authority as a clergyman†. This shows that although Mr Collins isn’t in a extremely high position in society he is proud of who he is and perhaps thinks himself to be more important than what he is in reality. In terms of physical appearance, Mr Collins is shorter than Darcy which could suggest that he has a weaker chance of marrying Elizabeth, as Darcy is more powerful and serious. Mr Collins isn’t presented as a purposely comical character, but rather the opposite, he is always serious in every situation and is often blinded by his own ego to see that people often mock him. Mr Collin’s proposal to Elizabeth is one of the most humorous points in the novel, which reflects his personality due to the fact that Austen presents it in a ironically humorous way. The first instance of irony is that Collins mistakes Elizabeth’s unwillingness to be left in the room alone with himself as ‘modesty’ and shyness when in actual fact she Just finds the whole situation uncomfortable. Another example of irony is when Mr Collins assumes that all young ‘modest’ girls refuse a proposal from men that they intend to accept, â€Å"l know it to be the established custom of your sex to reject a man on the first application†, and so takes Elizabeth’s refusal speech as encouragement and continues to persuade her with his literate proposal. This highlights how clueless and arrogant Mr Collins is as he has the audacity to continue with his proposal ignoring all sense of ridiculousness, and in a way patronises Elizabeth as he suggests that he knows how all young ladies act, and doesn’t take her response seriously which reinforces how unromantic and scripted the proposal is. The words â€Å"your sex† indicate how domineering men were at the time, and he almost contradicts himself as earlier he states that he singled Elizabeth out, but then however goes on to group the whole â€Å"sex† together suggesting that omen are all exactly the same. Mr Collins speaks of passion and love for Elizabeth as though he is reading a list or quoting something. The proposal is clearly unromantic and literate when Mr Collins begins listing his reasons for wanting to marry. â€Å"My reasons for marrying are, first that I think it a right thing for every clergyman in easy circumstances (like myself) to set the example of matrimony in his parish, secondly,†. This shows that marriage for Mr Collins is simply a convenience rather than emotion, opposed to Elizabeth who elieves marriage is based on true love, and so his proposal becomes even more un realistic and comical as their views are so different. The line â€Å"for coming into Hertfordshire with the design of selecting a wife† suggests that Mr Collins created a plan for his proposal before hand, and suggests that he chose Elizabeth purely shows the dominance of men at the time as women were almost like a prize that they selected. Although Mr Collins is trying to convince Elizabeth into marriage, he suggests that she ‘almost’ his first choice when in actual fact he had planned to arry Jane. In contrast to this, he then goes on to say â€Å"but before I am run away with by my feelings on this subject†. This makes the situation more humorous as Mr Collins is clearly contradicting and humiliating himself as his earlier actions show that his need for marriage is not based on ‘feelings’ and that he may not have any romantic feelings towards Elizabeth at all. Elizabeth’s reaction to Mr Collins reaction is perhaps what makes the whole situation more humorous. Firstly, she does the unthinkable and refuses him, â€Å"l am perfectly erious in my refusal†, which would have been out of the ordinary and frowned upon in society at the time. The word â€Å"serious† shows how independent she is which was strange at the time as women were almost in possession of a man and you were only as good as the man you married. Strangely, Elizabeth finds the whole situation humorous, and slightly entertaining as he is so pompous and self- righteous that she cant help but laugh. â€Å"Made Elizabeth so near laughing that she could not use the short pause he allowed her to stop him further†. Instead of stopping Mr Collins, she inds the whole situation overly awkward as she is aware of the total incompatibility of each other, in comparison to Mr Collins who is totally unaware of the fact that he looks ridiculous and so continues, hoping to impress Elizabeth. As Mr Collins continues on, Elizabeth begins to get frustrated as she tried to subtly suggest that his idea of marriage would never work, however Mr Collins stays persistent. â€Å"It was absolutely necessary to interrupt him now’. This is humorous as it shows how self obsessed Mr collins is as he thinks of himself too highly and believes that he is orthy of every woman, which is why he is so shocked when Elizabeth assures him that she is rejecting his proposal. â€Å"l am persuaded that when sanctioned by the express authority of both your excellent parents, my proposals will not fail of being acceptable†. The reader may petty or sympathise with Mr Collins as his inability to understand and pride could pass off to be innocence, which suggests he has no idea on the matter of marriage and love even though he speaks like he does. Mr Collins often elaborates in situations thinking himself to be the epitome of elegance, in ontrast to Elizabeth who stays silent and offers mere responses to his proposal. This is humorous as it highlights how shocked Elizabeth is at Mr Collins arrogance and reinforces their total incompatibility. To conclude, Austen successfully portrays a humorous scene which reflects the unwillingly comical character of Mr Collins. She does this using ironic humour, and in particular makes Elizabeth’s response to the situation much less elaborate than the proposal itself, which shows how idiotic and narrow minded she views Mr Collins to be.

College app Essay

1. Obtain applications. Applications can be obtained online at college websites; downloadable and electronic applications are now available at most college websites. In fact, most colleges now prefer that applicants complete their online application (as opposed to the printable paper application), as it is more efficient for them and for you. Application fees may be waived by some schools if you use the electronic applications. However, if you would like to complete the application by hand, you may obtain a printable version online or by calling, writing, or emailing to request an application and information. Some applications are available in the Career Center (check with Ms. Roth). NOTE: Students are responsible for completing and mailing their college applications, essays, and processing fees to the college to which they are applying. All of your application â€Å"pieces† do not have to be mailed at the same time. As materials are received, the colleges will create â€Å"your† file. After submitting applications, you will want to follow up with each college to make sure that they have received all â€Å"pieces† of your application so that they can begin to evaluate your application. 2. Schedule a Senior Interview with your Counselor. Counselors will be meeting individually with you to discuss your post-graduation plans and to discuss how they can help you with the process and with your plans. If you are applying Early Decision or Early Action schedule a conference in SEPTEMBER. 3. Complete your Activity Sheet, Counselor Recommendation Brag Sheet and Parent Brag Sheets. Pick up the brag sheets and an example of an Activity sheet from your school counselor, Career Center or on Family Connection in the Document Library section. 4. Students must complete an Annandale High School Transcript Request and Release of Records form at least three weeks prior to the college’s application deadline in order to give our student services staff ample time to process your transcript and/or letter of recommendation. This form can be retrieved from Ms. Garman in the Office of Student Services or in the Family Connection Document Library. Once completed and signed by you and your parent, the form should be returned to Ms. Garman along with the following for each college you’re applying to: The college’s Secondary School Report Form (if required), a typed copy of your Activity Sheet, an AHS envelope address to the college’s Office of Admission and TWO stamps. If applying to more than 3 schools a $5. 00 fee is required for each additional school. Once the process is completed, your information will be mailed from our office to the colleges to which you’re applying. 5. Obtain teacher or counselor recommendations. Students should refer to each college’s application to find out how many recommendations are required, if any. Not all schools require a recommendation. For Teacher recommendations, students must give the teacher one self-addressed, stamped envelope for EACH school to which they are applying. The teacher will then mail the recommendation directly to each college. Again, Please be sure to give them at least 3 weeks notice on getting a letter of recommendation out. We recommend that Juniors ask their teachers if they’d be willing to write them a letter of recommendation for college at the end of their Junior year. For Counselor recommendations, students should fill out the Counselor Recommendation Brag Sheet and attach a typed or written Activity sheet or Resume of Activities. In addition, the student’s parent or guardian must fill out the Parent Information Sheet. Please be very detailed when filling out these forms. When finished, these forms should be given to your counselor at least three weeks prior to the college’s application deadline. Please note that your counselor will not write a letter of recommendation until these forms are received and a senior meeting has been held. 6. Register for all admissions tests†¦SAT I, SAT II, ACT, and TOEFL. Fee waivers are available for students who receive free or reduced Lunch. Please ask your school counselor for a test fee waiver. Colleges require that student test scores be sent directly to them via Collegeboard (www. collegeboard. com) or ACT (www. act. org) or TOEFL (www. toefl. org). You may send your scores free of charge to a maximum of 4 schools if they are sent within the designated window of opportunity. You will have to pay a fee for any additional scores sent. 7. Begin Scholarship searches NOW! Do not wait until you have been accepted to college to begin your search for money! A good place to start would be scholarship database in Family Connection under the â€Å"College Tab† if you don’t know where this is, see Ms. Roth in the Career Center. 8. Keep organized. Put each school’s materials in its own folder and create a check list for each application. Identify deadlines!!! Remember that application deadlines and financial aid deadlines are often times different dates. 9. Don’t succumb to Senioritis! Don’t stop working after you have been accepted; you have been accepted to a college provided you finish out your second semester satisfactorily! Colleges are not afraid to change their mind on their decision to accept you. 10. RELAX! DON’T STRESS OUT! If you are, please see your counselor or Mrs. Roth in the Career Center for help with the process.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Usability Testing and Heuristic Evaluation Essay

Usability Testing and Heuristic Evaluation - Essay Example Usability Testing and Heuristic Evaluation Learnability affects how fast a user can learn and use the system after undergoing a certain amount and duration of training. Efficiency affects the amount of tasks a user can perform in a set amount of time. Meanwhile, memorability enables a user to use the system after a period of inactivity without having to relearn its operation. Low error rate refers to the number of problems encountered by the user and the ease of correcting such errors. Lastly, satisfaction generally refers to the overall user perception of the system serving its intended purpose. Usability Testing The term usability testing has been generally referred to as any method used to evaluate a system or product. For the purpose of clarification, the term usability testing shall be used in this paper as a distinct empirical method of system evaluation with the goal of identifying usability issues and developing recommendation on how address such issues. Rubin and Chisnell described usability testing as a process of r ecruiting people as test participants to evaluate the system based on a series of usability guidelines. Test participants are normally composed of individuals whose profiles represent the target user audience. The inclusion of test participants based on real world parameters is what makes usability testing unique among other usability assessment methods. In this method, test participants are selected from the target user audience and are asked to perform specific tasks using a prototype of the system. During the duration of the test, user performance and reactions to the product are observed and recorded by a facilitator (Fiset, 2009). In essence, usability testing is a research tool which originated from conventional experimental methodology. The range of usability tests that can be performed is significantly broad, allowing the developer to tailor-fit approaches according to the test objectives, time constraints, and resources available (Rubin & Chisnell, 2008). Since it originate d from conventional approaches for controlled experiments, usability testing follows formal methods which include: (1) hypothesis formulation; (2) random sampling of participants; (3) utilization of experimental controls; (4) utilization of controlled groups; and (4) composition of sample size to determine statistical differences between groups (Rubin & Chisnell, 2008). Fiset (2009) outlined the following basic steps in conducting usability assessments: (1) definition of test objectives; (2) enumeration of tasks; (3) developing a prototype or mock-up of the system; (4) performing a preliminary validation test on prototype; (5) recruiting test participants; (6) preparing forms, venue, and equipment; (7) determining level of confidentiality of acquired data; (8) conducting the test proper; (9) filling out of evaluation questionnaire; (10) analysis and consolidation of results; (11) writing down of recommendations. The objectives of the usability test are normally determined by the pha se of system development the test will be carried out. Initial usability tests usually involve performing specific tasks based on the system design. As development progresses, additional objectives may be added such as identification of number errors, gauging user satisfaction, measuring time spent completing a

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Theoretical Bases of Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Theoretical Bases of Nursing - Essay Example Therefore, it is the requirement of acceptable theories to be flexible and dynamic enough to keep pace with the growth and changes in the discipline in clinical practice (Barnum, 1998. 15-37). Nursing is now considered to be a discipline of knowledge that includes an array of facts, concepts, and approaches to inquiry. The discipline of nursing is acknowledged also to be a community of scholars that includes nurses in all places where nursing takes place, and this is indeed scholarship in the sense that it shares commitment to values, concepts, and processes to guide the thought and work of the discipline. Consistent with thinking of nursing scholars about the discipline of nursing, is the idea that it needs nursing theories more than anything else. Moreover, professional clinical nursing today is just scholarship due to the fact that nursing works, now, on a unique and vast knowledge base that has matured through phases of development. Nursing as a professional practice science that is dedicated to the problem solving for human health issues, calls for scholars who are accountable for understanding these theories and conceptual frameworks to be able to utilize them in gu iding practice, research, education, and regulation (Chinn & Kramer, 1995, 27-48). Boyer's analysis of schol... Teaching, in his opinion is not simply a matter of dissemination and transmission of knowledge, but a form of scholarship. Therefore, it would involve transformation and extension of knowledge through the process of critical debates and an insistent examination, investigation, and challenge of both content and pedagogy. His assertion, that this could involve analysis of "various kinds of academic work, while also acknowledging" their dynamic interactions in order to form an independent whole would enable one to look at nursing scholarship in a broader context, allowing it to be seen and perceived as an interrelated whole with distinctive components that opens avenues for a varied approach to knowing (Boyer, 1996, 1-6). Boyer is one of the pioneers in the recent times, who assigned a meaning to scholarship, and proposed that there are four different categories of scholarship. The most familiar of them is the scholarship of discovery which is very intimately associated with original research. As expected, this form of scholarship would call for deeper comprehension of research processes and intense involvement with activities emanating from that comprehension. According to Boyer, there are four different categories of scholarship. The first and the foremost area of scholarship is that of discovery. The scholarship of discovery is intimately related to original research, and this demands activities that enhance a deeper understanding of the methodical aspects of the research processes. The deeper understanding of the research processes would tend to answer the discipline's pressing questions. This specific category calls for standards, significance of the research,